The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs on either side of your spine. They are below your ribs and behind your belly roughly about the size of a fist. The kidneys' job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes, control the body's fluid balance, and keep the right levels of electrolytes. All of the blood in your body passes through them several times a day.
Caused by a bacterial infection, usually results in back pain and fever. The spread of bacteria from an untreated bladder infection is the most common cause of pyelonephritis.Glomerulonephritis:
An overactive immune system may attack your kidney, causing inflammation and some damage. Blood and protein in the urine are common symptoms that occur with glomerulonephritis. It can also result in renal failure.
Kidney stones (renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis)
Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones. Severe, sharp pain in the side and back and below the ribs and pain or burning sensation while urinating are the most common symptoms.Nephrotic syndrome:
Nephrotic syndrome causes your body to pass too much protein in your urine. The damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys causes nephrotic syndrome.Polycystic kidney disease:
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) Clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous and contain fluid. The cysts vary in size. Acute renal failure A condition in which the kidneys suddenly can't filter waste from the blood. Acute renal failure develops rapidly over a few hours or days. It may be fatal. It's most common in those who are critically ill and already hospitalized.<.p> Chronic renal failure:
Chronic renal failure, or chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a slow and progressive decline of kidney function. It's usually a result of a complication from another serious medical condition such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or cardiovascular disease. End-stage renal disease (ESRD): End-stage renal disease, also called end-stage kidney disease, occurs when chronic kidney disease — the gradual loss of kidney function — reaches an advanced state. In end-stage renal disease, your kidneys are no longer able to work as they should to meet your body's needs.Papillary necrosis:
Renal papillary necrosis refers to ischemic necrosis of the renal papillae. The renal papillae are the areas where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney and urine flow into the ureters.Diabetic nephropathy:
High blood glucose levels due to diabetes can damage part of the kidneys that filters your blood. The damaged filter becomes ‘leaky’ and allows protein into the urine.Hypertensive nephropathy:
Hypertensive nephropathy refers to kidney failure that can be attributed to a history of hypertension It is a chronic condition and it is a serious risk factor for the development of end-stage kidney diseaseKidney cancer:
Kidney cancer is a disease that starts in the kidneys. It happens when healthy cells in one or both kidneys grow out of control and form a lump (called a tumour). Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.Interstitial nephritis:
Interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder. The kidneys filter waste and extra fluid from the body. When you have interstitial nephritis, the spaces between tubules (small tubes) inside the kidney become inflamed. This reduces the kidneys' ability to filter properlyMinimal change disease:
Minimal Change Disease is a kidney disease in which large amounts of protein is lost in the urine. It is one of the most common causes of the Nephrotic Syndrome worldwide. The kidneys normally work to clean the blood of the natural waste products that build up over time.Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus:
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an inability to concentrate urine due to impaired renal tubule response to vasopressin (ADH), which leads to excretion of large amounts of dilute urine. It can be inherited or occur secondary to conditions that impair renal concentrating ability.Renal cyst
Renal cysts are sacs of fluid that form in the kidneys. They are usually characterized as "simple" cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts become fairly common as people age and usually do not cause symptoms or harm.